Anxiety

The anatomy of the alarm system 

  • Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York: Penguin Random House.

How the alarm system is meant to work 

  • LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Touchstone. New York: Rockefeller Centre.

Three possible alternative outcomes to being alarmed:

  1. Caution:

  • LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Touchstone. New York: Rockefeller Centre.

  1. Adaptation:

  • Vingerhoet, A. (2013). Why only humans weep: unraveling the mystery of tears”.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  1. Courage:

The assumption that before the alarm system can function optimally, the child or adult must be capable of:

  1. Adaptive functioning

  • Vingerhoet, A. (2013). Why only humans weep: unraveling the mystery of tears”.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  1. Integrative functioning

  • Sameroff, A. J., & Haith, M. M. (Eds.). (1996). The five to seven year shift: The age of reason and responsibility. University of Chicago Press.

The assumption that deficits in this functioning can result in chronic and untempered alarm

  •  Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York: Penguin Random House.

The personality attributes associated with a healthy working alarm system

The assumption that when some fearful stimuli is too much to bear, the alarm system can be blindness by defence mechanism and divorces the anxious symptoms from the underlying alarm.

  • Ramachandran, V.S. and Blakeslee, S. (1998). Phantoms of in the Brain – probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

The assumption that the severity of defendedness, mentioned above, gives rise to three kinds of alarm problems: anxiety-based, agitation-based, and adrenalin-based, with a whole spectrum of manifestations

The assumption that recognising the signs of anxiety is the key to addressing the underlying alarm

The proposition of solutions for intervening with anxiety:

  1. limit separations 

  • Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment: Second Edition. New York: Basic Books.

2. provide rest and safety

  • Perry, B. and Szalvalvitz, M. (2006). The Boy who was Raised as a Dog. New York: Basic Books.

3. accept anxiety

4. provide substitutes for anxiety reduction

5. encourage tears and develop courage 

“Perceived poor maternal care, maternal overprotection, and maternal overcontrol are associated with hoarding in women with OCD”.

  • Chen, D and others (2017). Parental bonding and hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry, Feb;73:43-52.

Maternal sensitivity and executive functioning, attentional control, regulation:

  • Bernier A, Carlson SM, Whipple N. From external regulation to self-regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Development. 2010;81:326–339. 
  • Kok, R., Lucassen, N., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Ghassabian, A., Roza, S. J., Govaert, P., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C., & Tiemeier, H. (2014). Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children. Child Neuropsychology, 20, 583–606.
  • Belsky J, Pasco Fearon RM, Bell B. (2007). Parenting, attention and externalizing problems: Testing mediation longitudinally, repeatedly and reciprocally. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 48:1233–1242.