Vulnerability Factor

The assumption that every human brain is equipped to defend against a vulnerability too much to bear:

  • Freud, S. (1901). Psychopathology of Everyday Life, W. W. Norton & Company
  • Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Penguin Random House, NY, NY
  • Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being, (1st edition, 1962; 2nd edition, 1968)
  • LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Touchstone, Rockefeller Centre, NY, NY

  1. Emotional defense:

  • Freud, S. (1901). Psychopathology of Everyday Life, W. W. Norton & Company.
  • James, W. 1884. ‘What is an Emotion?’, Mind 9 (34), pp. 188-205.
  • Schore, A. (1994).  Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development.  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

  1. Perceptual defense:

  • Ramachandran, V.S. and Blakeslee, S. (1998). Phantoms of in the Brain – probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • Rank, O. (1929-31). Will Therapy. W. W. Norton (1978)

  1. Attachment defense:

  • Bowlby, J. (1973). Separation: Anxiety & Anger. Attachment and Loss (vol. 2); (International psycho-analytical library no.95). London: Hogarth Press. 
  • Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: Sadness & Depression. Attachment and Loss (vol. 3); (International psycho-analytical library no.109). London: Hogarth Press.
  • Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment, Second Edition, Basic Books, 
  • Rutter, M. (1971). Parent-child separation: psychological effects on the children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 233 – 256.

Factors that lead some children to be more vulnerable than others:

  • Rank, O. (1929-31). Will Therapy. W. W. Norton (1978).
  • Ellis, B., et al. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory Development and Psychopathology 23, 7–28 # Cambridge University Press.
  • Werner. E and Smith, R. 1992. “Overcoming the Odds – High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.

The impact of defendedness on learning and behaviour is reviewed:

  • Ellis, B., et al. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology 23, 7–28. Cambridge University Press.

Vulnerability, defendedness and maturation:

  • Schore, A. (1994).  Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development.  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
  • Ramachandran, V.S. and Blakeslee, S. (1998). Phantoms of in the Brain – probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
  • Werner. E and Smith, R. (1992). “Overcoming the Odds – High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.

The impact of a child’s flight from vulnerability on attachment:

  • Neufeld, G. and Maté, G. (2013). Hold On to Your Kids: Why Parents Need to Matter More Than Peers. New York: Ballantine Books.

  • Brumariu, L.E. (2015), “Parent–Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation”. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, (148):31-45 (“Studies have established that securely attached children internalize effective emotion regulation strategies within the attachment relationship and are able to successfully employ adaptive emotion regulation strategies outside the attachment relationship, when the attachment figure is not present.”)